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Related post: 5-)-methyl transferase was purified from HeLa cells and its substrate
specificity was determined.
A. Purification and characterization of HeLa cell RNA (nucleoside-
2'-) methyl transferase . A specific assay was developed for cap-specific j
RNA (nucleoside-2'-) -methyl transferase. The substrate for this assay j
was prepared by using purified vaccinia virus capping enzyme, synthetic j
P9ly(A,j;a-32p] Order Styplon Online GTP and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Buy Styplon The substrate, J
m G(5')ppA(pA) , and AdoMet were then incubated with enzyme fractions and i
the formation of m G(5')ppA (pA) was detected by RNase Tp digestion and
high voltage DEAE paper electrophoresis. Using this assay, a specific
RNA (nucleoside-2'-) methyl transferase was purified. Characterization
of the enzyme is now in progress. i
B. Purification of capping enzyme from wheat germ . Capping enzymes
are extremely useful for specifically labeling the ends of RNA molecules.
After receiving numerous requests for vaccinia virus and Buy Cheap Styplon HeLa cell
capping enzymes, which Order Styplon are difficult to purify in large quantities, we
decided to attempt a purification from a more available source. Accordingly, \
wheat germ was chosen. Thus far, we have achieved a nearly 2,000 fold
purification of the enzyme and have made a preliminary characterization
of its catalytic activities which are more similar to the HeLa cell
capping enzyme than to the vaccinia virus enzyme. That is, it has no
associated RNA triphosphatase activity and requires a diphosphate terminated
polyribonucleitide. Also, like the HeLa cell enzyme, it has no associated
C. Post-transcriptional modification of transfer RNA: purification and
characterization of HeLa cell tRNA(cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase .
Eukaryotic cells contain a large number of different tRNAs that have
similar nucleotide modifications such as methylation. To better understand
protein nucleic acid interactions, we have purified a tRNA (cytosine-5-)-
methyl transferase from HeLa cells. The enzyme specifically methylates
cytidine residues within the transition sequence between the extra arm
and the righthand loop of tRNA. The ability of the enzyme to methylate
different tRNAs in the same part of the molecule suggests that the
enzyme recognizes a general or limited sequence. Since RNase T, oligo-
nucleotides of tRNA were not substrates, appropriate secondary or tertiary
structure is probably needed in addition to the proper Purchase Styplon Online general sequence.
Such a feature woulc be advantageous in allowing a single enzyme to
methylate a large number of different tRNAs.
1 1 . Organization and transcription of the vaccinia virus genome .
Vaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family, provides a unique
system for studying the synthesis and processing of mRNA from a DNA
genome; all enzymes necessary for the synthesis of functional mRHA are
contained within the infectious Buy Styplon Online virus particle. The goal of this project
is to define the roles of all enzymes and protein factors involved in
the regulation of transcription. During the past year, we have used DNA
recombinant methods to clone portions of the vaccinia virus genome and
to determine the organization of some early transcriptional units.
Another major achievement has been the purification of the vaccinia RNA
A. Tandem Repeats within the Inverted Terminal Repetition of Vaccinia
Virus DNA . Last year, we demonstrated that the same 10,000 base pair
(bp) sequence is present at both ends of the vaccinia virus genome. To
facilitate further studies, this segment of the genome was cloned in
coliphage lambda. This permitted more detailed analysis which led us to
detect the presence of direct tandem repetitions of a 70 bp sequence.
These tandem repetitions begin about 200 bp from the ^^ery end of the
genome. There are 13 tandem repetitions, followed by a 435 bp unique
sequence, followed by 17 tandem repetitions of the same 70 bp sequence.
Thus, there are 30 repetitions of this sequence at each end of the
genome. These sequences are not transcribed and we have proposed that
they function to accelerate cyclization of single strands of DNA during
B. Analysis and mapping of mRNA and polypeptides encoded within the
inverted terminal repetition . Early vaccinia polypeptides encoded
within the terminal repetition were mapped by cell-free translation of
mRNA that was selected by hybridization to restriction fragments and
separated strands of a recombinant lambda phage. The results, which
were confirmed by hybrid arrest of translation, indicated that polypeptides
of 7,500 (7.5K) 19,000 (19K) and 42,000 (42K) daltons map at approximately
3.2 to 4.3, 6.5 to 7.2 and 7.2 to 8.3 kbp from the end of the genome,
respectively. mRNAs for the 42K and 7.5K polypeptides are transcribed
towards the end of the genome whereas mRNA for the 19K Purchase Styplon polypeptide is
transcribed in the opposite direction. The mRNAs coding for these
polypeptides were resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. No evidence
for interrupted genes was obtained by electron microscopy or nuclease SI
analysis of RNA'DNA hybrids. Thus, RNA splicing, which has been demonstrated
for DNA viruses that replicate within the nucleus of infected cells,
does not appear to be involved in synthesis of these first vaccinia
virus mRNAs to be examined.
C. Purification o f the vaccinia virus RNA polymerase . The DNA-
dependent RNA polymerase was extracted from vaccinia virions and purified
to near homogeneity. The native enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately
500,000 and can be dissociated into polypeptides of 140,000, 137,000
37,000, 35,000, 31,000, 22,000 and 17,000 daltons. Activity is dependent
on a sitjigle-stranded DNA template, all 4 ribonucleoside triphosphates,
and Mn . The vaccinia virus RNA polymerase can be differentiated from
prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases by its resistance to rifampicin
and a-amanitin, respectivsly.
structural Studies of the Vaccinia Genome
Restriction enzyme digests of vaccinia virus DNA usually produce 15
or more unique segments which are separated by agarose gel electrophoresis,
The large number of pieces makes it difficult to order the segments on a
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